Samd21 external interrupt example

3V regulator. Reducing Power Consumption on Arduino Zero, MKR1000, or any SAMD21 Arduino Part 1 In this multiple part series we look at how to reduce power consumption for battery powered designs that utilize Arduino's with the Atmel SAMD21 MCU (Zero, MKR1000, etc). As with the previous part of this tutorial series, a terminal emulator will be needed such as Tera Term for Windows. At the end of each section a complete code will be provided for reference. 11 b/g/n (1x1) for up to 72Mbps x BLE Provisioning x Integrated PA and T/R Switch To improve the throughput of programmable interrupt controllers and device controllers. Assume that a device controller issues a signal on an IRQ line: the PIC transforms it into an external interrupt, and then both the PIC and the device controller remain blocked until the PIC receives an acknowledgment from the CPU. It consists of test cases for the following functionalities: Test for polled mode detection of external interrupt. Now if i want an interrupt every 1 ms i set the compare value to 250. Each interrupt line can be individually masked  If an external interrupts (EXTINT) is common on two or more I/O pins, only one to as an external interrupt, to wake up the mcu, for example? Prerequisites. In my code i calculate how many times the timer should count in order to move at a certain speed. The battery voltage should be 0 since it is reading a grounded input. Special Considerations. Whoever played with sleep/wakeup on samd21 mcu - I invite you to discuss tips and tricks there. External Programmable Watchdog Timer Using MSP430™ MCUs Using only the low-cost 0. MATCH_HHMMSS); //set alarm rtc. Set up an interrupt handler that's triggered by a timer interrupt at a rate of, say, once every 2 ms or so. In this example I made an arduino powered bike speedometer. The ATmega328P running at internal 8MHz clock is in sleep mode most of the time. How can I set up SPI using Atmel Studio and C code for ARM processor? external high frequency crystal, external low frequency crystal, or external clock) and a However using other sleep modes which are idle 0, idle 1, and idle 2, the CPU can be woken up through my external interrupt from SW0 GPIO button. In the G. These are simple i. Enable a specific interrupt on the peripheral. The interrupt response time for all the enabled interrupts is a minimum of five CPU clock cycles. when using A1 through A5 as interrupts, a change on A5 would cause the interrupt routine for A1 to be run. Quick reference for the pyb. In this tutorial we will learn how to use an External Interrupt in PIC Microcontroller and why/where we will need them. •. R1 can be as low as 220Ω giving a very short pulse and an interrupt is still created. Especially from sources like RTC. The pads can then be routed to an external GPIO pin using the normal pin multiplexing scheme on the SAM. For example, when a button is pushed or you receive a pulse from a rotary encoder. Charbax 3,955 views Working with a Feather M0 from Adafruit and I was unable to get interrupts functioning properly. My first question is the following: does FreeRTOS port depends on the SoC (e. In conf_clocks. These are run from the interrupt routine, and thus having long callbacks will keep the processor in the interrupt handler for an equally long time. However, just like the timer interrupts, you don’t need to keep polling the GPIO pins for a change. Additional Note. However, there is  The Atmel® SAM D21 is a series of low-power microcontrollers using the External interrupt signals connect to the NVIC, and the NVIC prioritizes the interrupts. h file. BTLC1000-XPRO-ADPT ( ATBTLC1000-XPRO-ADPT ) The ATBTLC1000-XPRO-ADPT is an adapter board for the ATBTLC1000-XPRO expansion board. Seem like he renamed the interrupt handlers so you have to change the name of the function irq_handler_eic() to EIC_Handler() or the interrupt will just end up in a default handler with a forever loop hanging the application. Tip: There is an extra time before a conversion starts. We’ll just get External Programming with NUCLEO-F103RB. Example sketch. 729 Voice Activity Detection for STM32F4-Discovery Board example model, the voice activity detection algorithm uses audio data coming from the microphone available on the STM32F4-Discovery board. ” TCC1 is set up to measure the time between interrupt events to measure an external ~60us minimum wide pulse that the TS8000 generates during the calibration routine. 5) To simplify the TS8000 Library for use with an external pin interrupt, an additional pin is used for the external interrupt input. For this example project we need to use two registers DDR and PORT. A SAM4N Xplained Pro board is used which communicates with a PC over a USB cable. The mikroC PRO for AVR provides a set of library routines for comfortable work with RS485 system using Master/Slave architecture. FatFs Adafruit Industries, Unique & fun DIY electronics and kits Adafruit Feather M0 Basic Proto - ATSAMD21 Cortex M0 ID: 2772 - Feather is the new development board from Adafruit, and like its namesake it is thin, light, and lets you fly! INTERRUPT" EXTERNAL INTERRUPT" T his Is a mode of Operations for PINs IT is Clarified in the INTERRUPT section of Series part III under_construction link ##pseudo code of how to make it work the propper way ## DIGITAL; OUTPUT Let's Select PortC Pin3 to be Output and Write 0b1 /* configure the Pin as OUTPUT write 0b1 to the bit3 in DDRC REG */ FreeRTOS+FATSL port for SAMD21Posted by owaisfazal on July 21, 2015Hello members, I am working on a project which requires using external memory for data storage. You might also notice that there isn't an external programming/debug interface header on this board. During these five clock cycles, the program counter is pushed on the stack. For example: In the screen capture above, the external ADC pin reads the internal temperature sensor and then battery voltage. Load the Example_2_Power_Down_Sleep sketch from the software download in Arduino. For example, in the code above, the interrupt routine simply changes the value of the variable “state” to HIGH, and prints out the word “interrupt. freq # get CPU and bus frequencies pyb. The external interrupts do have priority over pin-change interrupts, but I don’t imagine the bucket would tip so fast that you’d have any problems, especially when your ISR is just a count. FreeRTOS on Atmel SAMB11Posted by kev1 on June 28, 2016Hello ! I’m quite new to FreeRTOS and I would like to use it on an Atmel SAMB11 SoC (arm cortex M0), and more precisely on an Samb11Xplained board. Arduino M0 PRO: interrupt driven serial interface by Luca Davidian · Published August 8, 2017 · Updated May 30, 2019 SERCOM ( SERial COMmunication interface ) is the serial communication peripheral of the SAMD21. I'm looking for a timer interrupt library for the new Arduinos based on MCU SAMD21. enableAlarm(rtc. The Atmel® Software Framework (ASF) is a collection of free embedded software for Atmel microcontroller Beginners Introduction to the Assembly Language of ATMEL­AVR sram The Arduino M0 can be programmed with the Arduino software . For example, calling NVIC_SetPriority(7, 6) will set the priority configuration register corresponding to IRQ#7 to 1100,0000 binary on ARM Cortex-M with 3-bits of interrupt priority and it will set the same register to 0110,0000 binary on ARM Cortex-M with 4-bits of priority. As previously mentioned, all the interrupt handler functions are predefined in the samd21j18a. Looking at the Mayfly schematic, it appears the interrupt output from the rtc chip is on pin A7 of the Mayfly. Hardware is the same as used in the previous part of this tutorial series. Atmel AT03246: SAM D/R/L/C External Interrupt (EXTINT) Driver [APPLICATION NOTE] And tada, you get external interrupts in standby outside of debug. Step 3. Struct extint_nmi_conf Configuration structure for the edge detection mode of an external interrupt NMI channel. attachInterrupt(1, ISR_2, FALLING );. In the case of a scaler of 128, there could be 127 extra (processor) clock cycles added, because the hardware has to wait for the next ADC clock cycle. stop # stop CPU, waiting for external interrupt There is one other area that we need to discuss and that is the use of external interrupts. RS-485 is a multipoint communication which allows multiple devices to be connected to a single bus. Welp, let’s try to make it up. Create Touch Sensors with a single analog pin without external hardware: ArdTap: A library to manage an Arduino board from a mobile in a couple of minutes. Context: the AS5030 magnetic encoder IC. Software. No coding, only configuration. Uploading sketches to the SAMD21 is different from how it works with the AVR microcontrollers found in other Arduino boards: the flash memory needs to be erased before being re-programmed. In addition to the external interrupt requests, the NVIC design supports internal exceptions, for example, an exception input from a 24-bit timer called SysTick, which is often used by an OS. This sketch illustrates how to set a timer on an SAMD21 based board in Arduino (Feather M0, Arduino Zero should work) */ uint32_t sampleRate = 10; // sample rate of the sine wave in Hertz, how many times per second the TC5_Handler() function gets called per second basically External wakeup. 5KB MSP430FR2000 MCU, this solution reliably monitors the state of a host processor and works to protect it from hanging up in an invalid loop. This unit test carries out tests for the External Interrupt driver. AN_42112 AT03246: SAM D/R/L/C External Interrupt (EXTINT) Driver This document describes how to use the External Interrupt Controller (EXTINT) on the SAM, both the ASF driver and the peripheral itself. Programming tips and tricks. Jump to bottom Set up the GPIO pin (in this example we use PA19 which is tied to the EXT_INT3 channel). Circuits4you. For the tests I wrote a simple sketch with interrupt handling. The ATmega328 always needs an additional controller for programming. Atmega32 is a very popular high performance 8 bit AVR Microcontroller. The SAMD20’s ASF ADC callback driver works great and here are some basic code examples based off of Atmel’s own examples. For information about Cortex-M0 architectural compliance, see the Architecture and protocol information on page 1-8. Please note that, if the processor is sleeping, a new sketch can't be uploaded. . pyb. The only changes made are in the software. My problems is that both functions are running after either is triggered. Battery powered application can take advantage of these modes to enhance battery life significantly. I am have an application with multiple external interrupts hooked up. For instance. Working with a Feather M0 from Adafruit and I was unable to get interrupts functioning properly. But apparently, being able to process an interrupt from external pin and waking up the device from deepsleep mode by some signal change on the external pint happened to be two different challenges (at least for me). Using an Arduino Pro Mini, with a simple modification, the power consumption goes down to 54 μA (0. Learning the Teensy LC: Interrupt Service Routines May 17, 2015 March 27, 2016 Tutorial 2 Comments As a follow-on to my PWM experiments , I wanted to create a custom interrupt service routine (ISR) in the Teensy LC. There, I showed an example where pressing a button halts the normal program execution any time and serves another routine (called ISR). Similar to printing ‘Hello World’ in C or C++, the very first step towards programming a microcontroller is Blinking a LED with a delay. It is required for the UART hardware flow control functionality to operate correctly when the ATBTLC1000-XPRO expansion board is connected to certain Xplained MCU base boards. SAMD21 partnumber. At the edge of an external clock signal (or WE signal in this example), the value on up to 11 other external pins is recorded and stored in a buffer. To set (enable) an external interrupt on a given port pin, in this example digital pin 7, which is port pin PA21 or external interrupt EXTINT[5], (SAMD21 datasheet, Table 6. Serial Port ¶ The SAMD21 MCU has six SERCOM based USARTs with three configured as USARTs in this BSP. . The example shown here is just about the most basic case for using an interrupt - you can use them for reading an I2C device, sending or receiving wireless data, or even starting or stopping a motor. Yet it doesn't behave the way i want it to do. your plain old micro reading an analog pin snippets. Sleep modes allow a significant drop in the power usage of a board while it does nothing waiting for an event to happen. † deterministic, high-performance interrupt handling for time-critical applications † Serial Wire Debug reduces the number of pins required for debugging. I'm quite new to FreeRTOS and I would like to use it on an Atmel SAMB11 SoC (arm cortex M0), and more precisely on an Samb11Xplained board. The RobotDyn SAMD21 M0-Mini represents a powerful, 32-bit extension of the Arduino UNO platform, but in small size like Micro or Nano. 1 PORT Function Multiplexing): This sketch demonstrates the usage of External Interrupts (on pins) to wakeup a chip in sleep mode. Yes, the SparkFun SAMD21 Mini Breakout is even fully supported in the Arduino IDE and libraries for the Arduino Zero! The SparkFun SAMD21 Mini Breakout has been equipped with a USB interface for programming and power, surrounded with an RTC crystal, and a 600mA 3. The Arduino UNO has 2 external interrupt pins. Example: Serial Ports. Arduino Home An Open-Source platform to create digital devices and interactive objects that sense and control physical devices. API Overview. com Arduino interfacing, circuits tutorials with code and ebooks, Step by step guides for all sensor modules used for arduino. Notice the values are vary close. Module Overview. attachInterrupt(ISR); //creates an interrupt that wakes the SAMD21 which is triggered by a FTC alarm //comment out the below line if you are using RTC alarm for interrupt The “interrupt_routine” is a special function that is carried out each time the pin is interrupted. 2. 768 kHz external oscillator with the on-chip PLL generating the 48 MHz system clock. In this example, the internal RTC will wake up the processor every 2 seconds. The MAXQ2000 microcontroller's WDT serves as an example of an internal watchdog. h" file, to my understanding the LWmesh example application GCLK0 source is coming from SYSTEM_CLOCK_SOURCE_DFLL. e. The External Interrupt 1 is activated by the external pin INT1, if the SREG I-bit and the corresponding interrupt mask in the GICR are set. There are other ways to implement interrupts; specifically by using registers and register masks that enables you to use all other pins of the As I explored embedded firmware through the lens of learning how external interrupts worked on the SamD21 (with and without the CPU in standby mode), I gathered some key learnings that I wanted to be able to recall. The Arduino M0 Pro can be programmed with the Arduino software . The SAMD21 has peripherals known as SERCOM utilizing Atmel's ATMEGA2560 and external interrupt's? 2. I’ve been using the “interrupts” example from the Sodaq_DS3231. The interrupt handler reads the data coming back from the keypad rows, updates the outputs that drive the keypad columns, then looks at what the keypad is doing, using current state and context information. This example for a SAMD21 based board allows demonstrates the usage of Internal Interrupts to wakeup a chip in sleep mode. We will briefly review the SAM D21 Timer/Counter module in this section in order to provide a specific example of enabling a peripheral interrupt. The conversion starts on the leading edge of the ADC clock, not the moment the code asks for it. I’m trying to use the interrupt from the clock to control an event but I have not been successful in detecting the interrupt. h. bool generate_event_on_detect[] If true, an event will be generated when an external interrupt channel detection state changes 7. SAM R21  Dec 10, 2016 This document describes how to use the External Interrupt Controller (EXTINT) on the SAM, both the ASF driver and the peripheral itself. The controller wakes up once a second by external interrupt 0 fired by a DS1337. Atmel ATSAMD21J18A microcontroller; Embedded debugger (EDBG) USB Interface Arduino M0 PRO: configuring the clock tree of SAMD21 by Luca Davidian · Published August 8, 2017 · Updated May 30, 2019 The SAMD21 complex clock signal distribution system is designed to offer maximum flexibility and lets the programmer choose between performance and power consumption. voltage on the external pin is incorrect. Any additional processing of the new value happens on the next iteration of loop(). Writing interrupt handlers¶ On suitable hardware MicroPython offers the ability to write interrupt handlers in Python. For example, the sequence to read the GENCTRL register of generic clock  The String debugstring = ""; is the clue that this stuff is actually C++. The board is powered by Atmel’s SAMD21 MCU, featuring a 32-bit ARM Cortex® M0 core which is Compatible with Arduino Zero and Arduino M0. If you use Linux-based OS follow the guide Arduino IDE on Linux-based OS. Abstract: This article compares the benefits and drawbacks of internal (integrated with the microprocessor) and external (hardware-based) watchdog timers (WDTs). SAMB11) or only the processor (arm cortex M0) ? [Curmudegeoclast] found himself running out of flash memory on a Trinket M0 board, so he decided to epoxy and fly-wire a whopping 2 MB of extra flash on top of the original CPU. A list of the 181 libraries in the category Signal Input/Output. Interrupt handlers - also known as interrupt service routines (ISR’s) - are defined as callback functions. I noticed that my code did not resume from the line of code that was If you put another interrupt within an interrupt, your Arduino gets confused since they both have the same level of priority, and thinks well, which one should I be doing? This interrupt, or that interrupt? And that’s why you have unpredictable behavior. ASF USART Serial Interface Hardware and Software Hardware. A simple example is you can’t use the delay() within an interrupt. ATMEL's ARM programming without ASF. ISC11, ISC10, ISC01, ISC00: Interrupt Sense Control Bit 1 and Bit 0 for interrupt 1 and interrupt 0. //following two lines enable alarm, comment both out if you want to do external interrupt rtc. I use a mixture of ASF 4 APIs and CMSIS APIs. com. For demonstration purpose two SAM D21 Xplained Pro boards will be used. A Practical Example. After five clock cycles, the program vector for the interrupt is executed. Observing the "conf_clock. Since I am using FreeRTOS in my project, I was wondering if someone has ported FreeRTOS+FATSL on SAMD21 or SAMD20? I am trying to port FATFS by Chan and have […] Read about 'Arduino MKR WiFi 1010 Pinout, SAMD21 Pin Mapping, Tech Specs, EAGLE Files, Github, Schematics, Reference Links, FAQ, and More!' on element14. An external interrupt is a way for an I 2 C device to notify the master when a certain condition has been met. Unlike timer interrupts, external interrupts are triggered by external events. This ensures that the interrupt function completes well before the next one occurs! Hopefully this code is a good example on using an interrupt to reduce time spent waiting for an analogRead() to finish in standard Arduino code. Device Recommendations The device used in this example is part of the MSP430 Value Line Sensing portfolio of low-cost Just a heads-up to anyone that tries to use Ataradov's demo code here without using his SAM-startup include. This is a part of the sequence of PIC Tutorials in which we started learning PIC Microcontrollers from scratch; hence this tutorial assumes that you are familiar with how to program a PIC MCU using MPLABX and how to interface an LCD with PIC. in this project I will show you how to build a temperature monitor based ASF USART Serial Interface Hardware and Software Hardware. I want to wake up periodically the MCU form sleep state, do some task and go sleep again. Thus you must declare the IRQ handler as pure C function: extern "C" { void  Create External Interrupt in Arduino: Adruino has several types of interrupts. The jump to the interrupt handler takes three clock cycles. The Arduino IDE equips the SAMD21 with two hardware serial ports, by default, plus a third "USB serial port" for communicating between the serial monitor. Whatever was easiest/made the most Lowest Power WiFi in the World: Atmel | SMART SAM W25 Wi-Fi for IoT with ARM Cortex-M0+ - Duration: 5:42. The function requires global variables if they are to be changed each loop. The SAMD21 instead, has a built-in serial interface which can directly be connected to an USB cable. It seems that I can’t avoid periodically ostracizing this page. Arduino uno has two external interrupt pin Digital pin 2 and Digital pin 3. The level and edges on the external INT1 pin that activate the interrupt are defined in table below. Compared to SPI, UART is even simpler - it's only 2 pins, RX & TX. Test for callback mode detection of external interrupt. Wait for an internal or external interrupt. freq (60000000) # set CPU freq to 60MHz pyb. I discovered this issue when I tried to put the microcontroller to sleep and then wake it up, as an interrupt driven application. Built in Serial interface. I have initialized each of them with the ASF drivers and each one is to have its own callback function. Check to make sure your 8mhz clock or 32khz clock that you are using to run your gclk is also enabled to run in standby or else the gclk won’t run. Examples. These are the main characteristics of the J, G and E types: SAMD21 configuration. Atmel-42112E-SAM-External-Interrupt-Driver- Extint_AT03246_Application Note-12/2015 SAM D21 Xplained Pro. stop ¶ RS-485 Library. h library but it isn’t working. If a fault occurs and the main program does not get back to reset the timer before it counts down to zero, an interrupt is generated to reset the processor. I set timer 1 to interrupt every ms (frequency of 1kHz) to measure the magnetic switch. Extra Information. SAMD21 and SAM3X belongs to different families: even if both are CPU based on a Cortex-M core, the devices (PORT, TIMERS, SPI, UARTS, ecc. The SAMD21 MCU is configured to use the 32. Following are the common function calls used in master and slave applications in basic configuration example: system_init() i2c_clock_init() i2c_pin_init() Detailed explanation on each function will be provided in the upcoming sections. The only external clock source needed for the ATWINC3400 is a high-speed crystal or oscillator with a wide variety of reference clock frequencies supported (between 12 ± 32MHz). An Arduino Uno runs less than one day on a 9 V battery because it uses about 45 mA current. This hardware in most cases can be used to program external devices. Using one timer interrupt The first part of the OScope project is to implement the Arduino sketch to read the input values from an analog pin. x IEEE 802. g. 3. 054 mA) SparkFun SAMD21 Pro RF Hookup Guide Introduction The SparkFun SAMD21 Pro RF is the fated meeting of a SAMD21 and a long-range RFM95W LoRa®-enabled radio. In the case of the NUCLEO-F103RB, there is an SWD interface which can be used for this purpose. As I mentioned, one advantage of getting the official development board is the build-in hardware debugger. Update the configuration in the same way as example 1, and upload the sketch to your hardware. Note that the system-tick interrupt occurs once every millisecond (1000Hz) so this function will block for at most 1ms. In this example, we configure the Timer/Counter 3 to generate compare interrupts every 100 ms, using a 1 MHz CPU Clock and GCLK0. For example in the code above, if the external interrupt is triggered at start of 'loop()' it will jump to the ISR when it reaches the String declaration, regardless of how many iterations in the 'for' loop. All pin change interrupt libraries also conflict with the interrupts defined by SoftwareSerial and the SDI-12 library, although there are fairly easy Responding to an External Interrupt on a SamD21. UARTs are a real pain to emulate or bitbang due to their very precise timing and their asynchronous RX lines are very difficult to do if you dont have hardware interrupt pins available. The outcome is a compact, blazing fast microcontroller with excellent point to point data transmission in the 915MHz ISM radio band with LoRa capabilities. The values for the two ADC reads are vary close to each other. In a project I’m currently working on (more about it in later posts, perhaps), I needed a halfway decent way of measuring the angular displacement of a small, manually-turnt wheel. Used in this way, the watchdog timer can detect a fault on an unattended arduino program and attempt corrective action with a reset. It explains that internal watchdog timers are easy to implement, but subject to failure. AceButton An adjustable, compact, event-driven button library that handles debouncing and dispatches events to a user-defined event handler. Then an interrupt is raised, so that software can examine and process the stored value. example : attachInterrupt(0, ISR_1, FALLING);. The hardware for this example is exactly the same as the hardware from the first example. This executes a wfi instruction which reduces power consumption of the MCU until any interrupt occurs (be it internal or external), at which point execution continues. These are executed in response to an event such as a timer trigger or a voltage change on a pin. For example in your sketch: The SAMD21 has several things going for it – it’s cheaper than Atmel’s other ARM cores like the SAM4S, there is a wealth of information and documentation for it (both by Atmel and third parties), and it is very well supported in Atmel Studio with example projects. ) are different and low-level code cannot be transported as is from SAM3X to SAMD21. It works by attaching a magnet to the wheel and measuring the amount of time it takes to pass by a magnetic switch mounted on the frame- the time for one complete rotation of the wheel. AT11626: SAM D SERCOM USART Configuration ATSAMD21J18 Introduction This application note explains the various features of SERCOM USART in the Atmel® SAM D microcontrollers and its configurations with example codes and corresponding scope shots. If you've looked at my SAMD20 Xplained Pro page, you'll notice that there is a bit more to this board than that one. SAMD21 configuration. In this article will describe how to achieve a reliable sampling of analog signals up to 615 KHz using some advanced techniques. Hi, I'm trying to interface a PS/2 keyboard and a SAMD21 and I0m trying to configure the EIC - External Interrupt Controller to trigger on  The External Interrupt Controller (EIC) allows up to 16 external pins (EXTINTx) to be configured as interrupt lines. I'll show you the code below but my LM35 Temperature Sensor With SAMD21 Xplained Pro : if you are familiar with arduino platform , this project will sound silly for you , but if you are working on another platform , this project will not be as easy as you think. Can you have a callback function for each interrupt? uses an AtTiny85 as a lite weight external watchdog which can be configured at runtime. ArduinoUniqueID: Arduino Library to gets the Manufacture Serial Number from the Atmel AVR, SAM, SAMD, STM32, and ESP Microcontroller. Never execute large portions of code in the callbacks. Author Topic: Atmel SAM D example config (no ASF) (Read 6628 times) 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic. The ATWINC3400 is available in a QFN package. Setting up external clocks is quite easy, even Features of the SAMD21 Xplained Pro. One of the SAMD21's most exciting features is SERCOM -- its multiple, configurable serial ports. For now I used provided example for SAMD21 SoC. There are also additional system exceptions to support OS operations and a Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI) input. Use the STM32F4-Discovery Mic In block and schedule your algorithm based on the Mic In DMA interrupt. In our case a good example of an external interrupt would simply be to have an interrupt generated when new data is available. It only jumps to the ISR at specific lines of code. My previous code, which uses micros(), works fine except that the interrupt is to slow. On my previous Arduino Interrupt tutorial, I showed how to use the external and pin change interrupts for the ATMega328p-based Arduinos. samd21 external interrupt example

mz, nl, ks, sy, jq, uk, jy, to, jl, ri, ji, qu, rc, is, gc, 2a, 0p, dq, pd, pg, tb, ci, 25, kp, n0, ag, u6, wo, bv, g8, x9,